Identifying and Resolving HVAC Stratification Issues

Air stratification is the tendency of two or more airstreams to remain separated in layers. Stratification is a common issue in air handling units when return air and outside air are introduced into the mixing box. Warm air naturally rises, but airstream velocity plays a large part in causing the air layers to remain separate. Numerous issues can arise where stratification exists, including freezestat trips, frozen coils, poor temperature control accuracy, insufficient fresh air distribution, poor economizer operation, and uneven velocity profile. Stratification can occur in both summer and winter. The first step to correcting stratification is to perform a detailed temperature and veloci

HVAC Optimization: High-Efficiency Chillers and Boilers

PJM performed a large HVAC optimization project that included the replacement of an existing absorption chiller with a high-efficiency centrifugal chiller and exchanging two large boilers with several smaller, more energy-efficient boilers. The largest single user of natural gas in the client’s facility was the absorption chiller, which led to skyrocketing gas usage during summer months. The replacement centrifugal chiller uses more electricity than the existing absorption chiller, but the increase in electrical load was offset by a dramatic reduction in natural gas usage. Electricity use was further minimized by eliminating the primary chilled water pump and the addition of variable freque

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